Butyrate contains beneficial bacteria Christensenellaceae, Blautia and Lactobacillus. These bacteria characteristically produce high amounts of butyric acid. Butyrate in turn served to restore the intestinal mucosa damage induced by the high fat diet, increase the expression of the gastrointestinal barrier indicator zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) in the small intestine, and decreased the level of gut endotoxin in both the serum and liver, as compared to the high fat group. Butyrate also served to downregulate multiple genes, including endotoxin-associated genes such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Myd88, and numerous pro- inflammatory genes such as MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ in liver or epididymal fat. Other benefits of NaB administration were also observed, including the amelioration of liver inflammation and fat accumulation, decreased levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in liver, and a significantly decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver activity (NAS) score.